Araştırma Makalesi
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Kamu Girişimciliği Teorisi Kapsamında KİT’lerin Dünü Bugünü ve Yarını

Yıl 2023, Cilt 24, Sayı 1, 18 - 35, 16.01.2023
https://doi.org/10.37880/cumuiibf.1136852

Öz

Girişimcilik sıklıkla özel sektöre atfedilen bir faaliyet olarak değerlendirilse de, girişimcilik faaliyeti özel sektör girişimciliği ve kamu girişimciliği olarak iki grupta sınıflandırılır. Kamu kesimi girişimciliği olarak Kamu İktisadi Teşebbüsleri (KİT’ler) dünya genelinde pek çok ülke ekonomisinde önemli paylara sahiptir. Çalışmada KİT’ler kamu girişimciliğinin teorik temelleri ve gelişimi bakımından ele alınmıştır. Kamu girişimciliği ile özel sektör girişimciliği karşılaştırılarak, devletin girişimcilik faaliyetlerinin gerekçeleri ve kapsamı açıklanmaktadır. Geçmişten günümüze KİT’lerin yeniden yapılandırılmaları ve reform süreçleri değerlendirilerek, günümüzde KİT’lerin performanslarını arttırmak için politika önerilerinde bulunulmuştur. Bu bağlamda KİT’lerin performansını arttırmak için iyi yönetişim ve reformlara vurgu yapılmıştır. Şeffaflık, hesap verilebilirlik, etkin denetim, sağlam yönetsel ve hukuki zemin iyi yönetişim için gerekli temel ögelerdir. Rekabet ortamını bozmayan ve girişimci ruhuna sahip KİT’lerin ekonomide başarıyla faaliyetlerini yürüteceği öngörülmektedir. KİT’lerin uluslararası kuruluşların hazırladıkları rehberleri ve belirledikleri ilkeleri takip etmeleri yönetişimde standardizasyon sağlayarak ve şeffaflığı arttırarak politika başarısına katkı sağlayacaktır. KİT’lerin performanslarını arttırabilmek için teknolojiyi yakından takip etmeleri ve kullanmaları, girişimciliğe dayalı ve inovasyon politikalarına yönelmeleri gerekmektedir. Kurumsal kalitenin arttırılması, bu bağlamda kurumsal sorumluluğun geliştirilmesi, düzenleyici ve kurumsal çerçevelerin net bir şekilde çizilmesi, KİT’lerin etkinliğinin ve verimliliğinin arttırılmasına katkı sağlayacaktır. Ülkelerin ekonomik sistemleri ve benimsedikleri devlet anlayışlarına bağlı olarak KİT’lerin nicelikleri değişse de, ekonomideki niteliklerinin oldukça önemli olduğu görülmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Akkoyunlu P. (2011). Kamu İktisadi Teşebbüsleri ve Özelleştirme. Beta Kitabevi.
  • Appana, S. (2003). New public managment and poblic enterprise restructuring in Fiji, Pacific Studies 1(1), 51-73.
  • Bałtowski, M. & Kwiatkowski, G. (2022). State-Owned Enterprises in the Global Economy, Routledge https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003244462
  • Barzelay, M. (1992). Breaking Through Bureaucracy: A New Vision for Managing in Government (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press).
  • Bellone, C. J. & Goerl, G. F. (1992). Reconciling public entrepreneurship and democracy. Public Administration Review, 52(2),130-134.
  • Bernier, L. & Hafsi, T. (2007). The Changing Nature of Public Entrepreneurship. Public Administration Review, 67(3), 488-503.
  • Böwer, U. (2017). State-Owned Enterprises in Emerging Europe: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. IMF, IMF Working Papers, 17(221).
  • Brennan, G. & Buchanan, J. M. (1984). Voter Choice: Evaluating Political Alternatives. American Behavioral Scientist, 28(2), 185-201.
  • Brown, C. & Thornton, M. (2013). How Entrepreneurship Theory Created Economics, The Quarterly J. of Austrian Economics, 16(4), 401-419.
  • Bryson, J., Crosby, B. C. & Bloomberg, L. (2014). Public Value Governance: Moving Beyond Traditional Public Administration and the New Public Management Public Administration Review, 74( 4), s.445-456.
  • Buchanan, J. M. (1975). Public Finance And Public Choice. National Tax Journal, 28(4), 383- 394.
  • Cantillon, R. (1959). Essai sur la Nature du Commerce Général (ikinci baskı), Edited and translated by Henry Higgs. Frank Class and Company Ltd.
  • Choski, A. M. (1979). State Intervention in the Industrialization of Developing Countries: Selected Issues (SWP341). WB Working Papers.
  • Christiansen, H. (2013). Balancing Commercial and NonCommercial Priorities of State-Owned Enterprises. OECD Corporate Governance Working Papers, No.6.
  • Christiansen, H., & Kim, Y. (2014). State-Invested Enterprises in the Global Market¬place: Implications for a Level Playing Field (No. 14). OECD Corporate Governance Working Papers. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • Çetinkaya, Ö. (2012). Türkiye'de Kamu İşletmeciliği ve Özelleştirme, Ekin Kitabevi.
  • De Lange, B., & Merlevede, B. (2020). State-Owned Enterprises across Europe: Stylized Facts from a Large Firm-level Dataset. Working Papers of Faculty of Econom¬ics and Business Administration, Ghent University, (20/1006).
  • Diefenbach, F. E. (2011). Entrepreneurship in the Public Sector. Gabler Research.
  • Drucker, P. F. (1985). Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Harper & Row Publishers.
  • EC. (2003,Ocak). Entrepreneurship in Europe. (COM(2003)27final). Commission Of The European Communities. https://ec.europa.eu/invest-in-research/pdf/download_en/entrepreneurship_europe.pdf
  • EC. (2013). European System of Accounts 2010 (ESA10), Section 2.51, Luxembourg.
  • EC. (2016). State-Owned Enterprises in the EU: Lessons Learnt and Ways Forward in a Post-Crisis Context (Institutional Paper 031), ISSN 2443-8014(online) Publications Office of the European Union.
  • Edwards, C., Jones, G., Lawton, A. & Llewellyn, N. (2002). Public Entrepreneurship: Rhetoric, Reality, And Context, International Journal of Public Administration, 25(12), 1539-1554.
  • Eren, A. A. & Şimşek, O. (2022). Kamu İktisadi Teşebbüslerinin ve Özelleştirmenin Ekonomi Politiği: Türkiye Örneği. Cumhuriyet Ünv. İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 23(1),337-361.
  • Eurostat. (2022). Entrepreneurship indicators. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Entrepreneurship_indicators
  • Gibbon, H. (1997). A Seller’s Manual: Guidelines for Selling State-Owned Enterprises. Privatisation Yearbook, London: Privatisation International, 16-26.
  • Gruening, G. (2001). Origin and theoretical basis of new public management, International Public Management J., 4(1), s.1-25.
  • Hanke, S. H. (1987). The Necessity of Property Rights. S. H. Hanke(Ed). Privatization and Development (s.47-51)içinde. International Center For Economic Growth Ics Press.
  • Haskel, J. & Sanchis, A. (1995). Privatization and X‐Inefficiency: A Bargaining Approach. The J. of Industrial Economics, 43(3), 301‐321.
  • Hayter, C., Link, A. & Scott, J. T. (2018). Public Sector Entrepreneurship. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 34(4), 676–694.
  • Hemming, R. & Mansoor A.M. (1987). Privatization and Public Enterprises (WP87/9) IMF WP.
  • Hood, C. (1991). A Public Management for All Seasons. Public Administration. 69, 3-19.
  • Hughes, O. E. (2013). Public management and administration: An introduction (3. baskı). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • IMF (2020) Fiscal Monitor, April 2020: Policies to Support People During the COVID-19 Pandemic.
  • IMF. 2014. Government Finance Statistics Manual 2014. Washington, DC: IMF.
  • Jevsons, W. S. (2001). Richard Cantillon and the Nationality of Political Economy. Cantillon, R., Higgs, H., & Brewer, A. (Eds.), Essay on the Nature of Commerce in General (s.334-360) içinde. Routledge.
  • Kearney, C., Hisrich, R. & Roche F. (2007). Facilitating Public Sector Corporate Entrepreneurship Process: A Conceptual Model. J. of Enterprising Culture, 15(3), 275-299.
  • Khan, F. K. (2021). Win: How Public Entrepreneurship Can Transform The Developing World (Kindle Ed.).
  • Kirzner, I. M., (1973). Competition and entrepreneurship. IL Uni. of Chicago Press.
  • Knight, F. H. (1921). Risk, Uncertainty and Profit. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship. https://ssrn.com/abstract=1496192
  • Kowalski, P., Büge, M., Sztajerowska, M., & Egeland, M. (2013). State-Owned Enterprises: Trade Effects and Policy Implications. OECD Trade Policy Papers. Paris: OECD
  • Kwiatkowski, G., & Augustynowicz, P. (2015). State-Owned Enterprises in the Global Economy-Analysis Based on Fortune Global 500 List (Managing Intellectual Cap¬ital and Innovation for Sustainable and Inclusive Society: Managing Intellectual Capital and Innovation; Proceedings of the MakeLearn and TIIM Joint Interna¬tional Conference 2015).
  • Lan, Z. & Rosenbloom, D.H. (1992). ‘Editorial’, Public Administration Review, 52 (6).
  • Lane, J. E. (2000). The Public Sector: Concepts, Models and Approaches (üçüncü baskı). Sage Pub.
  • Leibenstein, H. (1978). General X-Efficiency Theory and Economic Development. Oxford Uni. Press.
  • Lewandowski, M. (2017). Public Organizations and Business Model Innovation: The Role of Public Service Design. M. Lewandowski & B. Kożuch (Ed), Public Sector Entrepreneurship and the Integration of Innovative Business Models (s.47-72) içinde, IGI Global.
  • Leyden, D. P. & Link, A. N. (2015). Public Sector Entrepreneurship, Oxford Uni. Press.
  • Link, A. N., & Link, J. R. (2009). Government as Entrepreneur. Oxford Uni. Press.
  • Megginson, W.L. & Netter, J. M. (2001). From State to Market: A Survey of Empirical Studies on Privatization. Journal of Economic Literature, 39(2), 321-389.
  • Morris, M. H., & Jones, F. F. (1999). Entrepreneurship in Established Organizations: The Case of the Public Sector. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 24(1), 71–91.
  • Mulgan, G. (2014). Innovation in the public sector, version 1, nesta.
  • Musgrave, R. A. (1959). The Theory of Public Finance. Macmillan.
  • Mühlenkamp, H. (2015). From State to Market Revisited: A Reassessment of the Empirical Evidence on the Efficiency of Public (and Privately-Owned) Enter¬prises. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 86(4), 23.
  • OECD. (2009). Privatisation in the 21st Century: Recent Experiences of OECD Countries. Corporate Affairs Division, Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs.
  • OECD. (2015). OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • OECD. (2017). The Size and Sectoral Distribution of State-Owned Enterprises, OECD Publishing Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264280663-en
  • OECD. (2018). Ownership and Governance of State-Owned Enterprises: A Compendium of National Practices.
  • Osborne, D. & Gaebler, T. (1992). Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector. Addison-Wesley.
  • Ostrom, E. (1964). Public Entrepreneurship: A Case Study in Ground Water Basin Management. University of California (basılmamış doktora tezi).
  • Piketty, T. (2014). Yirmi Birinci Yüzyılda Kapital (H. Koçak Çev.). Türkiye İş Bank. Kült. Yayınları.
  • Pollitt, Christopher (1993) Managerialism and the Public Services: Cuts or Cultural Change in the 1990s, Second Edition (Oxford: Basil Blackwell)
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WITHIN THE THEORY OF PUBLIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF SOEs

Yıl 2023, Cilt 24, Sayı 1, 18 - 35, 16.01.2023
https://doi.org/10.37880/cumuiibf.1136852

Öz

Although entrepreneurship is often regarded as an activity largely attributed to the private sector, entrepreneurial activity is classified into two groups as private sector entrepreneurship and public entrepreneurship. As public sector entrepreneurship, State Economic Enterprises (SOEs) have important shares in the economies of many countries around the world. In the study, SOEs are discussed in terms of the theoretical foundations and development of public entrepreneurship. Restructuring and reform processes of SOEs from past to present have been evaluated, and policy recommendations have been made to increase the performance of SOEs today. In this context, emphasis was placed on good governance and reforms to increase the performance of SOEs. Transparency, accountability, effective audit, sound footing administrative and legal ground are essential elements for good governance. It is predicted that SOEs that do not distort the competitive environment and have an entrepreneurial spirit will successfully carry out their activities in the economy. Following the guidelines and principles determined by international organizations by SOEs will contribute to policy success by providing standardization in governance and increasing transparency. In order to increase SOEs’ performance, SOEs need to follow and use technology closely and turn to entrepreneurial and innovation policies. Increasing the institutional quality, in this context, improving corporate responsibility, clearly delineating regulatory and institutional frameworks will contribute to increasing the effectiveness and productivity of SOEs. Although the quantities of SOEEs vary depending on the economic systems of the countries and the understanding of the state they adopt, it is seen that their qualities in the economy are quite essential.

Kaynakça

  • Akkoyunlu P. (2011). Kamu İktisadi Teşebbüsleri ve Özelleştirme. Beta Kitabevi.
  • Appana, S. (2003). New public managment and poblic enterprise restructuring in Fiji, Pacific Studies 1(1), 51-73.
  • Bałtowski, M. & Kwiatkowski, G. (2022). State-Owned Enterprises in the Global Economy, Routledge https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003244462
  • Barzelay, M. (1992). Breaking Through Bureaucracy: A New Vision for Managing in Government (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press).
  • Bellone, C. J. & Goerl, G. F. (1992). Reconciling public entrepreneurship and democracy. Public Administration Review, 52(2),130-134.
  • Bernier, L. & Hafsi, T. (2007). The Changing Nature of Public Entrepreneurship. Public Administration Review, 67(3), 488-503.
  • Böwer, U. (2017). State-Owned Enterprises in Emerging Europe: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. IMF, IMF Working Papers, 17(221).
  • Brennan, G. & Buchanan, J. M. (1984). Voter Choice: Evaluating Political Alternatives. American Behavioral Scientist, 28(2), 185-201.
  • Brown, C. & Thornton, M. (2013). How Entrepreneurship Theory Created Economics, The Quarterly J. of Austrian Economics, 16(4), 401-419.
  • Bryson, J., Crosby, B. C. & Bloomberg, L. (2014). Public Value Governance: Moving Beyond Traditional Public Administration and the New Public Management Public Administration Review, 74( 4), s.445-456.
  • Buchanan, J. M. (1975). Public Finance And Public Choice. National Tax Journal, 28(4), 383- 394.
  • Cantillon, R. (1959). Essai sur la Nature du Commerce Général (ikinci baskı), Edited and translated by Henry Higgs. Frank Class and Company Ltd.
  • Choski, A. M. (1979). State Intervention in the Industrialization of Developing Countries: Selected Issues (SWP341). WB Working Papers.
  • Christiansen, H. (2013). Balancing Commercial and NonCommercial Priorities of State-Owned Enterprises. OECD Corporate Governance Working Papers, No.6.
  • Christiansen, H., & Kim, Y. (2014). State-Invested Enterprises in the Global Market¬place: Implications for a Level Playing Field (No. 14). OECD Corporate Governance Working Papers. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • Çetinkaya, Ö. (2012). Türkiye'de Kamu İşletmeciliği ve Özelleştirme, Ekin Kitabevi.
  • De Lange, B., & Merlevede, B. (2020). State-Owned Enterprises across Europe: Stylized Facts from a Large Firm-level Dataset. Working Papers of Faculty of Econom¬ics and Business Administration, Ghent University, (20/1006).
  • Diefenbach, F. E. (2011). Entrepreneurship in the Public Sector. Gabler Research.
  • Drucker, P. F. (1985). Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Harper & Row Publishers.
  • EC. (2003,Ocak). Entrepreneurship in Europe. (COM(2003)27final). Commission Of The European Communities. https://ec.europa.eu/invest-in-research/pdf/download_en/entrepreneurship_europe.pdf
  • EC. (2013). European System of Accounts 2010 (ESA10), Section 2.51, Luxembourg.
  • EC. (2016). State-Owned Enterprises in the EU: Lessons Learnt and Ways Forward in a Post-Crisis Context (Institutional Paper 031), ISSN 2443-8014(online) Publications Office of the European Union.
  • Edwards, C., Jones, G., Lawton, A. & Llewellyn, N. (2002). Public Entrepreneurship: Rhetoric, Reality, And Context, International Journal of Public Administration, 25(12), 1539-1554.
  • Eren, A. A. & Şimşek, O. (2022). Kamu İktisadi Teşebbüslerinin ve Özelleştirmenin Ekonomi Politiği: Türkiye Örneği. Cumhuriyet Ünv. İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 23(1),337-361.
  • Eurostat. (2022). Entrepreneurship indicators. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Entrepreneurship_indicators
  • Gibbon, H. (1997). A Seller’s Manual: Guidelines for Selling State-Owned Enterprises. Privatisation Yearbook, London: Privatisation International, 16-26.
  • Gruening, G. (2001). Origin and theoretical basis of new public management, International Public Management J., 4(1), s.1-25.
  • Hanke, S. H. (1987). The Necessity of Property Rights. S. H. Hanke(Ed). Privatization and Development (s.47-51)içinde. International Center For Economic Growth Ics Press.
  • Haskel, J. & Sanchis, A. (1995). Privatization and X‐Inefficiency: A Bargaining Approach. The J. of Industrial Economics, 43(3), 301‐321.
  • Hayter, C., Link, A. & Scott, J. T. (2018). Public Sector Entrepreneurship. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 34(4), 676–694.
  • Hemming, R. & Mansoor A.M. (1987). Privatization and Public Enterprises (WP87/9) IMF WP.
  • Hood, C. (1991). A Public Management for All Seasons. Public Administration. 69, 3-19.
  • Hughes, O. E. (2013). Public management and administration: An introduction (3. baskı). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • IMF (2020) Fiscal Monitor, April 2020: Policies to Support People During the COVID-19 Pandemic.
  • IMF. 2014. Government Finance Statistics Manual 2014. Washington, DC: IMF.
  • Jevsons, W. S. (2001). Richard Cantillon and the Nationality of Political Economy. Cantillon, R., Higgs, H., & Brewer, A. (Eds.), Essay on the Nature of Commerce in General (s.334-360) içinde. Routledge.
  • Kearney, C., Hisrich, R. & Roche F. (2007). Facilitating Public Sector Corporate Entrepreneurship Process: A Conceptual Model. J. of Enterprising Culture, 15(3), 275-299.
  • Khan, F. K. (2021). Win: How Public Entrepreneurship Can Transform The Developing World (Kindle Ed.).
  • Kirzner, I. M., (1973). Competition and entrepreneurship. IL Uni. of Chicago Press.
  • Knight, F. H. (1921). Risk, Uncertainty and Profit. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship. https://ssrn.com/abstract=1496192
  • Kowalski, P., Büge, M., Sztajerowska, M., & Egeland, M. (2013). State-Owned Enterprises: Trade Effects and Policy Implications. OECD Trade Policy Papers. Paris: OECD
  • Kwiatkowski, G., & Augustynowicz, P. (2015). State-Owned Enterprises in the Global Economy-Analysis Based on Fortune Global 500 List (Managing Intellectual Cap¬ital and Innovation for Sustainable and Inclusive Society: Managing Intellectual Capital and Innovation; Proceedings of the MakeLearn and TIIM Joint Interna¬tional Conference 2015).
  • Lan, Z. & Rosenbloom, D.H. (1992). ‘Editorial’, Public Administration Review, 52 (6).
  • Lane, J. E. (2000). The Public Sector: Concepts, Models and Approaches (üçüncü baskı). Sage Pub.
  • Leibenstein, H. (1978). General X-Efficiency Theory and Economic Development. Oxford Uni. Press.
  • Lewandowski, M. (2017). Public Organizations and Business Model Innovation: The Role of Public Service Design. M. Lewandowski & B. Kożuch (Ed), Public Sector Entrepreneurship and the Integration of Innovative Business Models (s.47-72) içinde, IGI Global.
  • Leyden, D. P. & Link, A. N. (2015). Public Sector Entrepreneurship, Oxford Uni. Press.
  • Link, A. N., & Link, J. R. (2009). Government as Entrepreneur. Oxford Uni. Press.
  • Megginson, W.L. & Netter, J. M. (2001). From State to Market: A Survey of Empirical Studies on Privatization. Journal of Economic Literature, 39(2), 321-389.
  • Morris, M. H., & Jones, F. F. (1999). Entrepreneurship in Established Organizations: The Case of the Public Sector. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 24(1), 71–91.
  • Mulgan, G. (2014). Innovation in the public sector, version 1, nesta.
  • Musgrave, R. A. (1959). The Theory of Public Finance. Macmillan.
  • Mühlenkamp, H. (2015). From State to Market Revisited: A Reassessment of the Empirical Evidence on the Efficiency of Public (and Privately-Owned) Enter¬prises. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 86(4), 23.
  • OECD. (2009). Privatisation in the 21st Century: Recent Experiences of OECD Countries. Corporate Affairs Division, Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs.
  • OECD. (2015). OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • OECD. (2017). The Size and Sectoral Distribution of State-Owned Enterprises, OECD Publishing Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264280663-en
  • OECD. (2018). Ownership and Governance of State-Owned Enterprises: A Compendium of National Practices.
  • Osborne, D. & Gaebler, T. (1992). Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector. Addison-Wesley.
  • Ostrom, E. (1964). Public Entrepreneurship: A Case Study in Ground Water Basin Management. University of California (basılmamış doktora tezi).
  • Piketty, T. (2014). Yirmi Birinci Yüzyılda Kapital (H. Koçak Çev.). Türkiye İş Bank. Kült. Yayınları.
  • Pollitt, Christopher (1993) Managerialism and the Public Services: Cuts or Cultural Change in the 1990s, Second Edition (Oxford: Basil Blackwell)
  • Praag, C. M. (1999). Some Classic Views On Entrepreneurship. De Economist, 147(3), 311-335.
  • Ramirez-Rigo, E., vd. (2021). State-Owned Enterprises in Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia: Size, Role, Performance, and Challenges (DP/2021/019). IMF.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal Bilimler, Disiplinler Arası
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Dilek AKBAŞ AKDOĞAN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
İstanbul Medeniyet Üniversitesi
0000-0002-8132-6971
Türkiye

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 11 Ocak 2023
Yayımlanma Tarihi 16 Ocak 2023
Gönderilme Tarihi 28 Haziran 2022
Kabul Tarihi 9 Kasım 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2023, Cilt 24, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Akbaş Akdoğan, D. (2023). Kamu Girişimciliği Teorisi Kapsamında KİT’lerin Dünü Bugünü ve Yarını . Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi , 24 (1) , 18-35 . DOI: 10.37880/cumuiibf.1136852

İrtibat
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