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Chinese Intellectuals’ Perspectives on Russia's Invasion of Ukraine

Yıl 2023, Cilt 24, Sayı 1, 72 - 84, 16.01.2023
https://doi.org/10.37880/cumuiibf.1179664

Öz

The Russia-Ukraine war, its reasons and impact have been discussed by diplomats, politicians and intellectuals worldwide. While many accuse the Russian leadership and in particular Russian President Vladimir Putin for the war, some others criticize Western countries and principally the US for NATO’s eastward expansion and for disregarding Russia’s security concerns. Chinese intellectuals with diverse academic and political backgrounds have also contributed to these discussions and offered their assessments about the war in Ukraine as well as what kind of a policy China should follow. However, because of the sensitive relationship between the authoritarian party-state and Chinese intellectuals, Chinese intellectuals are in a delicate situation compared to intellectuals in the West. Despite this, the Chinese state’s relatively balanced and neutral stance and decision of not openly taking sides in the war provided a ground for Chinese intellectuals to publicly share their thoughts about both the war itself and China’s position towards Russia’s aggression. Nevertheless, due to its close relationship with Moscow, the Chinese state allows only a restricted space for intellectuals to share their views about the war, especially to anti-Russia voices. This study surveys these debates among Chinese intellectuals about the war in Ukraine as well as the policies that the Chinese leadership should follow.

Kaynakça

  • Aizhu, C., Zhu, J., Xu, M. (2022, March 28). Exclusive China’s Sinopec pauses Russia projects, Beijing wary of sanctions - sources, Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/business/aerospace-defense/russia-says-china-refuses-supply-aircraft-parts-after-sanctions-2022-03-10/
  • Bloomberg News. (2022, March 22). Beijing tells Chinese in Russia to help fill economic void. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2022-03-22/beijing-tells-chinese-firms-in-russia-to-help-fill-economic-void
  • Cowhig, D. (2022, February 26). Our attitude towards Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. David Cowhig’s Translation Blog. https://gaodawei.wordpress.com/2022/02/26/2022-prc-profs-our-attitude-towards-russias-invasion-of-ukraine/
  • Cui, Z. (2022, March 5). The “security dilemma”, constructivism and Ukraine. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/cui-zhiyuan-the-security-dilemma-and-ukraine.html
  • Denti, A., Martina, M., Shalal, A. (2022, March 15). U.S. raises concerns about China aligning with Russia at meeting it calls ‘intense’. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/world/us-warn-china-perils-aiding-russia-rome-meet-2022-03-14/
  • Fisher, M. (2022, February 24). Putin’s case for war, annotated. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/24/world/europe/putin-ukraine-speech.html
  • Friedman, T. L. (2022, February 21). This is Putin’s war. But America and NATO aren’t innocent bystanders. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/21/opinion/putin-ukraine-nato.html
  • Global Times. (2022, March 17). Russia-Ukraine conflict can be regarded as a ‘preview’ of US’ possible acts in Asia: Zheng Yongnian. https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202203/1255162.shtml
  • Hu, W. (2022, March 12). Possible outcomes of the Russo-Ukrainian war and China’s choice. US-China Perception Monitor. https://uscnpm.org/2022/03/12/hu-wei-russia-ukraine-war-china-choice/
  • Hu, X. (2022a, February 24). Russia to create a turning point since disintegration of USSR. Global Times. https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202202/1253122.shtml
  • Hu, X. (2022b, March 4). Chinese people keep ear to the ground during Russia-US showdown. Global Times. https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202203/1253893.shtml
  • Hu, X. (2022c, March 22). Russia a crucial partner for China in deterring US. Global Times. https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202203/1256525.shtml
  • Huang, T., Lardy, N. R. (2022, March 16). As China quietly joins sanctions against Russia, Xi might be too rational to risk arming Putin. The Sydney Morning Herald. https://www.smh.com.au/world/europe/as-china-quietly-joins-sanctions-against-russia-xi-might-be-too-rational-to-risk-arming-putin-20220316-p5a54j.html
  • Kirby, P. (2022, May 9). Why has Russia invaded Ukraine and what does Putin want? BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-56720589
  • Kuo, L. (2022, February 22). “China keeps walking its tightrope between Russia and the West as tensions flare in Ukraine”. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2022/02/22/china-russia-ukraine-reaction/
  • Lin, Z. (2022, April 4). E wu chongtu yu women de lichang [The Russia-Ukraine conflict and our position]. https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/7lj9-0_dc6HpwVpr8Al3VQ
  • Mearsheimer, J. J. (2022, June 23). The causes and consequences of the Ukrainian crisis. The National Interest. https://nationalinterest.org/feature/causes-and-consequences-ukraine-crisis-203182
  • Ming, J. (2022, February 22). Wukelan weiji zhongyu “baole”, zhongguo bixu zai zhe san jian shiqing shang baochi qingxing [The Ukraine crisis finally “exploded”, and China must stay awake on these three things]. https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/SEBdF_Ty3oMT5n7v8E4J1Q
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (2022, February 26). Wang Yi expounds China’s five-point position on the current Ukrainian issue. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/zxxx_662805/202202/t20220226_10645855.html
  • Ni, V. (2022, February 28). “They were fooled by Putin”: Chinese historians speak out against Russian invasion. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/feb/28/they-were-fooled-by-putin-chinese-historians-speak-out-against-russian-invasion
  • Nigam, A. (2022, March 11). China terms Russia’s invasion of Ukraine a ‘war’ for first time, hopes fighting stop soon. Republic World. https://www.republicworld.com/world-news/russia-ukraine-crisis/china-terms-russias-invasion-of-ukraine-a-war-for-first-time-hopes-fighting-stop-soon-articleshow.html
  • Pomerantsev, P. (2022, January 22). What the West will never understand about Putin’s Ukraine obsession. Time. https://time.com/6140996/putin-ukraine-threats/
  • President of Russia. (2022, February 4). Joint Statement of the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China on the International Relations Entering a New Era and the Global Sustainable Development. http://en.kremlin.ru/supplement/5770
  • Qin, G. (2022, March 15). Chinese ambassador: Where we stand on Ukraine. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2022/03/15/china-ambassador-us-where-we-stand-in-ukraine/
  • Qin, H. (2022a, February 24). The West’s ‘double standard’ and Putin’s ‘single standard’ – From Crimean crisis to Putin’s February 21 declaration. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/qin-hui-on-ukraine--1.html
  • Qin, H. (2022b, February 28). Ukraine series no. 2: Aggression and appeasement – Crimea and the Sudetenland compared. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/qin-hui-on-ukraine--2.html
  • Qin, H. (2022c, April 10). The Russia-Ukraine war and the Soviet-Finnish ‘winter war’ – Ukraine commentary no. 4. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/qin-hui-ukraine-4.html
  • Qin, H. (2022d, April 11). Will the Bucha massacre put an end to appeasement? Ukraine series no. 5. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/qin-hui-ukraine-5.html
  • Qin, H. (2022e, April 20). Appeasement after World War II: Solzhenitsyn’s question – Ukraine series no. 7”. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/qin-hui-ukraine-7.html
  • Ramzy, A. (2022, February 23). China criticizes sanctions against Russia as ineffective and warns of wider damage. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/23/world/europe/china-russia-ukraine-sanctions.html
  • Reuters. (2022a, March 7). China says friendship with Russia is ‘rock solid’. https://www.reuters.com/world/china-says-friendship-with-russia-is-rock-solid-2022-03-07/
  • Reuters. (2022b, March 10). Russia says China refuses to supply aircraft parts after sanctions. https://www.reuters.com/business/aerospace-defense/russia-says-china-refuses-supply-aircraft-parts-after-sanctions-2022-03-10/
  • Safeguard Defender (2022, March 3). China cracks down on pro-Ukrainian voices. https://safeguarddefenders.com/en/blog/china-cracks-down-pro-ukrainian-voices
  • Sky News (2022, May 25). Vladimir Putin’s obsession: Why Russia’s leader is so fixated on taking Ukraine. https://news.sky.com/story/vladimir-putins-obsession-why-russias-leader-is-so-fixated-on-taking-ukraine-12620455
  • Shalal, A., Martina, M., Brunnstrom, D. (2022, March 14). China faces consequences if it helps Russia evade sanctions, U.S. says. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/world/white-house-adviser-discuss-russias-war-ukraine-with-chinas-top-diplomat-source-2022-03-13/
  • South China Morning Post (2022, March 5). ‘How can I survive’: Chinese stranded in Ukraine feel left to their fate as Russian shelling continues. https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy/article/3169395/how-can-i-survive-chinese-stranded-ukraine-feel-left-their
  • Sun, L. (2022a, January 17). Let’s think it through: A possible picture of the post-pandemic era and the problems we may face. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/sun-liping-on-the-end-of-the-pandemic.html
  • Sun, L. (2022, February 27). The small chess board and the big picture: Russia in the big picture may be Ukraine in the small chess board. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/sun-liping-russia-ukraine-and-the-big-picture.html
  • Suny, R. (2022, February 28). Ukraine war follows decades of warnings that NATO expansion in Eastern Europe could provoke Russia. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/ukraine-war-follows-decades-of-warnings-that-nato-expansion-into-eastern-europe-could-provoke-russia-177999
  • Troianovski, A., Bradsher, K. (2022, September 15). Putin nods Xi’s ‘concerns,’ and the limits of their cooperation. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/09/15/world/europe/putin-china-ukraine.html
  • Vitvitsky, B. (2022, May 24). The Putin puzzle: Why is the Russian dictator so obsessed with Ukraine? Atlantic Council. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/ukrainealert/the-putin-puzzle-why-is-the-russian-dictator-so-obsessed-with-ukraine/
  • Wade, R. H. (2022, March 30). Why the US and NATO have long wanted Russia to attack Ukraine? LSE Blogs. https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/europpblog/2022/03/30/why-the-us-and-nato-have-long-wanted-russia-to-attack-ukraine/
  • Wilkinson, T. (2022, February 21). Why is Putin obsessed with Ukraine? The Los Angeles Times. https://www.latimes.com/politics/story/2022-02-21/why-is-putin-obsessed-with-ukraine
  • Wong, E., Barnes, J. E. (2022, March 13). Russia asked China for military and economic aid for Ukraine war, U.S. officials says. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/03/13/us/politics/russia-china-ukraine.html
  • Yan, X. (2022, May 2). China’s Ukraine conundrum: Why the war necessitates a balancing act. Foreign Affairs. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/china/2022-05-02/chinas-ukraine-conundrum
  • Zhao, Y. (2022, March 24). China’s choice in the Russia-Ukraine war. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/zhao-yanjing-on-the-war-in-ukraine.html
  • Zheng, Y. (2022, February 25). The war in Ukraine blurs the two main lines, but many people misunderstand China’s role. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/zheng-yongnian-ukraine-and-the-new-world-order.html

Çinli Aydınların Rusya'nın Ukrayna İşgali Üzerine Görüşleri

Yıl 2023, Cilt 24, Sayı 1, 72 - 84, 16.01.2023
https://doi.org/10.37880/cumuiibf.1179664

Öz

Rusya-Ukrayna savaşı, savaşın nedenleri ve etkileri dünyanın dört bir yanındaki diplomatlar, politikacılar ve aydınlar tarafından tartışılmaktadır. Tartışmaya katılanları birçoğu savaşın gerekçesi olarak Rus liderliğini ve özellikle Rusya Devlet Başkanı Vladimir Putin'i gösterirken, bazıları ise Batılı ülkeleri, özellikle de ABD'yi NATO'nun doğuya doğru genişlemesi ve Rusya'nın güvenlik kaygılarını göz ardı etmeleri nedeniyle eleştirmektedir. Farklı akademik ve siyasi arka planlara sahip Çinli aydınlar da bu tartışmalara katılarak Ukrayna'daki savaş ve Çin'in nasıl bir politika izlemesi gerektiği konusunda değerlendirmelerde bulunmuşlardır. Ancak otoriter parti-devleti ile Çinli aydınlar arasındaki hassas ilişki nedeniyle Çinli aydınlar Batı'daki aydınlara göre hassas bir konumdadır. Buna rağmen Çin devletinin savaş karşısında gösterdiği görece dengeli ve tarafsız duruş ve savaşta açıkça taraf tutmama kararı, Çinli aydınların hem savaş hem de Çin'in Rusya'nın saldırganlığına karşı tutumu hakkındaki düşüncelerini kamuoyu önünde paylaşmalarına zemin hazırladı. Bununla birlikte Çin devleti, Moskova ile sahip olduğu yakın ilişki nedeniyle Çinli entelektüellerin, özellikle de Rusya karşıtı görüşe sahip olanların, savaş hakkındaki görüşlerini paylaşmaları için yalnızca sınırlı bir alan açmaktadır. Bu çalışma, Çinli aydınlar arasında Ukrayna'daki savaş ve Çin liderliğinin izlemesi gereken politikalar ile ilgili tartışmaları incelemektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Aizhu, C., Zhu, J., Xu, M. (2022, March 28). Exclusive China’s Sinopec pauses Russia projects, Beijing wary of sanctions - sources, Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/business/aerospace-defense/russia-says-china-refuses-supply-aircraft-parts-after-sanctions-2022-03-10/
  • Bloomberg News. (2022, March 22). Beijing tells Chinese in Russia to help fill economic void. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2022-03-22/beijing-tells-chinese-firms-in-russia-to-help-fill-economic-void
  • Cowhig, D. (2022, February 26). Our attitude towards Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. David Cowhig’s Translation Blog. https://gaodawei.wordpress.com/2022/02/26/2022-prc-profs-our-attitude-towards-russias-invasion-of-ukraine/
  • Cui, Z. (2022, March 5). The “security dilemma”, constructivism and Ukraine. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/cui-zhiyuan-the-security-dilemma-and-ukraine.html
  • Denti, A., Martina, M., Shalal, A. (2022, March 15). U.S. raises concerns about China aligning with Russia at meeting it calls ‘intense’. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/world/us-warn-china-perils-aiding-russia-rome-meet-2022-03-14/
  • Fisher, M. (2022, February 24). Putin’s case for war, annotated. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/24/world/europe/putin-ukraine-speech.html
  • Friedman, T. L. (2022, February 21). This is Putin’s war. But America and NATO aren’t innocent bystanders. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/21/opinion/putin-ukraine-nato.html
  • Global Times. (2022, March 17). Russia-Ukraine conflict can be regarded as a ‘preview’ of US’ possible acts in Asia: Zheng Yongnian. https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202203/1255162.shtml
  • Hu, W. (2022, March 12). Possible outcomes of the Russo-Ukrainian war and China’s choice. US-China Perception Monitor. https://uscnpm.org/2022/03/12/hu-wei-russia-ukraine-war-china-choice/
  • Hu, X. (2022a, February 24). Russia to create a turning point since disintegration of USSR. Global Times. https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202202/1253122.shtml
  • Hu, X. (2022b, March 4). Chinese people keep ear to the ground during Russia-US showdown. Global Times. https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202203/1253893.shtml
  • Hu, X. (2022c, March 22). Russia a crucial partner for China in deterring US. Global Times. https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202203/1256525.shtml
  • Huang, T., Lardy, N. R. (2022, March 16). As China quietly joins sanctions against Russia, Xi might be too rational to risk arming Putin. The Sydney Morning Herald. https://www.smh.com.au/world/europe/as-china-quietly-joins-sanctions-against-russia-xi-might-be-too-rational-to-risk-arming-putin-20220316-p5a54j.html
  • Kirby, P. (2022, May 9). Why has Russia invaded Ukraine and what does Putin want? BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-56720589
  • Kuo, L. (2022, February 22). “China keeps walking its tightrope between Russia and the West as tensions flare in Ukraine”. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2022/02/22/china-russia-ukraine-reaction/
  • Lin, Z. (2022, April 4). E wu chongtu yu women de lichang [The Russia-Ukraine conflict and our position]. https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/7lj9-0_dc6HpwVpr8Al3VQ
  • Mearsheimer, J. J. (2022, June 23). The causes and consequences of the Ukrainian crisis. The National Interest. https://nationalinterest.org/feature/causes-and-consequences-ukraine-crisis-203182
  • Ming, J. (2022, February 22). Wukelan weiji zhongyu “baole”, zhongguo bixu zai zhe san jian shiqing shang baochi qingxing [The Ukraine crisis finally “exploded”, and China must stay awake on these three things]. https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/SEBdF_Ty3oMT5n7v8E4J1Q
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (2022, February 26). Wang Yi expounds China’s five-point position on the current Ukrainian issue. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/zxxx_662805/202202/t20220226_10645855.html
  • Ni, V. (2022, February 28). “They were fooled by Putin”: Chinese historians speak out against Russian invasion. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/feb/28/they-were-fooled-by-putin-chinese-historians-speak-out-against-russian-invasion
  • Nigam, A. (2022, March 11). China terms Russia’s invasion of Ukraine a ‘war’ for first time, hopes fighting stop soon. Republic World. https://www.republicworld.com/world-news/russia-ukraine-crisis/china-terms-russias-invasion-of-ukraine-a-war-for-first-time-hopes-fighting-stop-soon-articleshow.html
  • Pomerantsev, P. (2022, January 22). What the West will never understand about Putin’s Ukraine obsession. Time. https://time.com/6140996/putin-ukraine-threats/
  • President of Russia. (2022, February 4). Joint Statement of the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China on the International Relations Entering a New Era and the Global Sustainable Development. http://en.kremlin.ru/supplement/5770
  • Qin, G. (2022, March 15). Chinese ambassador: Where we stand on Ukraine. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2022/03/15/china-ambassador-us-where-we-stand-in-ukraine/
  • Qin, H. (2022a, February 24). The West’s ‘double standard’ and Putin’s ‘single standard’ – From Crimean crisis to Putin’s February 21 declaration. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/qin-hui-on-ukraine--1.html
  • Qin, H. (2022b, February 28). Ukraine series no. 2: Aggression and appeasement – Crimea and the Sudetenland compared. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/qin-hui-on-ukraine--2.html
  • Qin, H. (2022c, April 10). The Russia-Ukraine war and the Soviet-Finnish ‘winter war’ – Ukraine commentary no. 4. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/qin-hui-ukraine-4.html
  • Qin, H. (2022d, April 11). Will the Bucha massacre put an end to appeasement? Ukraine series no. 5. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/qin-hui-ukraine-5.html
  • Qin, H. (2022e, April 20). Appeasement after World War II: Solzhenitsyn’s question – Ukraine series no. 7”. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/qin-hui-ukraine-7.html
  • Ramzy, A. (2022, February 23). China criticizes sanctions against Russia as ineffective and warns of wider damage. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/23/world/europe/china-russia-ukraine-sanctions.html
  • Reuters. (2022a, March 7). China says friendship with Russia is ‘rock solid’. https://www.reuters.com/world/china-says-friendship-with-russia-is-rock-solid-2022-03-07/
  • Reuters. (2022b, March 10). Russia says China refuses to supply aircraft parts after sanctions. https://www.reuters.com/business/aerospace-defense/russia-says-china-refuses-supply-aircraft-parts-after-sanctions-2022-03-10/
  • Safeguard Defender (2022, March 3). China cracks down on pro-Ukrainian voices. https://safeguarddefenders.com/en/blog/china-cracks-down-pro-ukrainian-voices
  • Sky News (2022, May 25). Vladimir Putin’s obsession: Why Russia’s leader is so fixated on taking Ukraine. https://news.sky.com/story/vladimir-putins-obsession-why-russias-leader-is-so-fixated-on-taking-ukraine-12620455
  • Shalal, A., Martina, M., Brunnstrom, D. (2022, March 14). China faces consequences if it helps Russia evade sanctions, U.S. says. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/world/white-house-adviser-discuss-russias-war-ukraine-with-chinas-top-diplomat-source-2022-03-13/
  • South China Morning Post (2022, March 5). ‘How can I survive’: Chinese stranded in Ukraine feel left to their fate as Russian shelling continues. https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy/article/3169395/how-can-i-survive-chinese-stranded-ukraine-feel-left-their
  • Sun, L. (2022a, January 17). Let’s think it through: A possible picture of the post-pandemic era and the problems we may face. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/sun-liping-on-the-end-of-the-pandemic.html
  • Sun, L. (2022, February 27). The small chess board and the big picture: Russia in the big picture may be Ukraine in the small chess board. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/sun-liping-russia-ukraine-and-the-big-picture.html
  • Suny, R. (2022, February 28). Ukraine war follows decades of warnings that NATO expansion in Eastern Europe could provoke Russia. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/ukraine-war-follows-decades-of-warnings-that-nato-expansion-into-eastern-europe-could-provoke-russia-177999
  • Troianovski, A., Bradsher, K. (2022, September 15). Putin nods Xi’s ‘concerns,’ and the limits of their cooperation. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/09/15/world/europe/putin-china-ukraine.html
  • Vitvitsky, B. (2022, May 24). The Putin puzzle: Why is the Russian dictator so obsessed with Ukraine? Atlantic Council. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/ukrainealert/the-putin-puzzle-why-is-the-russian-dictator-so-obsessed-with-ukraine/
  • Wade, R. H. (2022, March 30). Why the US and NATO have long wanted Russia to attack Ukraine? LSE Blogs. https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/europpblog/2022/03/30/why-the-us-and-nato-have-long-wanted-russia-to-attack-ukraine/
  • Wilkinson, T. (2022, February 21). Why is Putin obsessed with Ukraine? The Los Angeles Times. https://www.latimes.com/politics/story/2022-02-21/why-is-putin-obsessed-with-ukraine
  • Wong, E., Barnes, J. E. (2022, March 13). Russia asked China for military and economic aid for Ukraine war, U.S. officials says. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/03/13/us/politics/russia-china-ukraine.html
  • Yan, X. (2022, May 2). China’s Ukraine conundrum: Why the war necessitates a balancing act. Foreign Affairs. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/china/2022-05-02/chinas-ukraine-conundrum
  • Zhao, Y. (2022, March 24). China’s choice in the Russia-Ukraine war. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/zhao-yanjing-on-the-war-in-ukraine.html
  • Zheng, Y. (2022, February 25). The war in Ukraine blurs the two main lines, but many people misunderstand China’s role. Reading the China Dream. https://www.readingthechinadream.com/zheng-yongnian-ukraine-and-the-new-world-order.html

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Uluslararası İlişkiler
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Emre DEMİR> (Sorumlu Yazar)
TED ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-9580-863X
Türkiye

Teşekkür Yazar, katkıları için Sırma Altun'a teşekkürlerini sunar.
Erken Görünüm Tarihi 11 Ocak 2023
Yayımlanma Tarihi 16 Ocak 2023
Gönderilme Tarihi 24 Eylül 2022
Kabul Tarihi 20 Aralık 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2023, Cilt 24, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Demir, E. (2023). Chinese Intellectuals’ Perspectives on Russia's Invasion of Ukraine . Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi , 24 (1) , 72-84 . DOI: 10.37880/cumuiibf.1179664

İrtibat
Sivas Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi,
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58140 Kampüs-SİVAS.

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E-Mail: iibfdergi@cumhuriyet.edu.tr